Relate radioactive dating techniques to isotopes

As radioactive Parent atoms decay to stable daughter atoms (as uranium decays to lead) each disintegration results in one more atom of the daughter than was initially present and one less atom of the parent.

The probability of a parent atom decaying in a fixed period of time is always the same for all atoms of that type regardless of temperature, pressure, or chemical conditions. The time required for one-half of any original number of parent atoms to decay is the half-life, which is related to the decay constant by a simple mathematical formula.

The principles and findings of botany have provided the base for such applied sciences as agriculture, horticulture, and forestry.

Plants were of paramount importance to early man; he depended upon them as sources of food, shelter, clothing, medicine, ornament, tools, and magic.

Botany, branch of biology that deals with the study of plants, including their structure, properties, and biochemical processes.

Also included are plant classification and the study of plant diseases and of interactions with the environment.

Its crust is continually being created, modified, and destroyed.

As a result, rocks that record its earliest history have not been found and probably no longer exist.

Isolated tribal groups in South America, Africa, and New Guinea, for example, have extensive knowledge about plants and distinguish hundreds of kinds according to their utility, as edible, poisonous, or otherwise important in their culture.

All rocks and minerals contain long-lived radioactive elements that were incorporated into Earth when the Solar System formed.

These radioactive elements constitute independent clocks that allow geologists to determine the age of the rocks in which they occur.

I will not visit these, a textbook on Radiochemical Dating will go into the detail needed to understand them. They are extremely dangerous and can kill you if exposed to the wrong kind, but they are also how much of the world's electricity is produced.

Another technique used to date rocks that contain no fossils involves measuring the degree of alpha particle damage to individual crystals of the rock. Radioactive isotopes are also commonly used in medicine for a number of beneficial purposes.

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Such recognition is suggested by the fact that, in primitive tribes and early civilizations, worship of the sun was often combined with the worship of plants.

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